Polycarbonate lenses are resistant to impact and are therefore often referred to as safety glasses. These are great for work that may have some degree of flying objects to the eyes.
Single Vision Lens if you have the same corrective power applied over the entire lens. Correction can be for nearsightedness (short sighted) far sightedness, astigmatism and more. Usually people wearing corrective lens before the age of 40 are wearing single vision lens.
(with a line separating the near-vision portion of your lens from the distance vision)
Bifocal lenses have a line dividing the upper lenses, used for distance correction, and the lower lenses used for reading or near vision correction. Myopic or hyperopic conditions can be thus corrected using one pair of lenses.
(graduated multiple strength on the lens, near-vision, intermediate and distance)
Progressive lenses do not have a dividing line between the upper and lower correction lenses and instead the two variances are blended together thus also creating intermediate correction (for in-between distances). These lenses are sometimes called varifocals or bifocals without a line.
Computer lenses are usually single vision lenses for the intermediate or in-between distance correction.
Reading lenses, or otherwise referred to as readers, are single vision lenses with near vision correction.
Anti-reflective coating (AR) will reduce the glare from reflections of light be it at night or by day, allowing better and clearer visibility. Especially ideal when using a computer or driving during the night. It is also easier for people looking into your eyes which will be clearer without the reflection for the sun or lights.
The Anti-scratch coating treated lenses are more resistant to scratching, though no coating can make them scratch-proof.